Where does the United States get most of its avocados? What state produces the most avocados in the USA? What states in the US produces the most avocados?We will discuss about these question related to US avocado production in this post.
Avocados (Persea Americana) is not a vegetable but actually a fruit that is believed to have originated in Mexico and Central and South America. Avocado trees were first planted in Florida in 1833 and then in California in 1856. California produces a large amount of avocado, followed by Florida and Hawaii according to NASS.
The avocado (Persea Americana) is the fruit of a tree native to Latin America and the Caribbean. It is cultivated in many countries with tropical climates in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as well as Florida and California in the United States (USA).
The Hass variety is the dominant and most popular commercial type cultivated due to year-round production, longest shelf life, and its rich, nutty flavor. The Hass variety is exported in large volumes to the USA.
The USA is the country that is the world’s largest avocado importer. Other common varieties include Reed Strong, Zutano, and Bacon (grown in California) and Choquette, Hall, and Lulu (grown in Florida).
The United States is the third-largest avocado producer in the world, after Mexico and Brazil. Total United States production for 1985-86 (preliminary) was 171 million kg. exist two commercial avocado regions in the United States: southern California and southern Florida. California represents 86 percent of the total avocado plantations in the United States. There is a small avocado industry in Hawaii in an area of 334 ha. A wide range of Avocado cultivars are grown in Hawaii, but the main cultivar is Sharwil. Commercial Avocado production has been attempted in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, but It has been limited due to winter frost.
In 2017, United States produced 116,538 metric tons of avocados, accounting for 12 percent of the total market supply. Unfortunately, this level has decreased, not so much because of the increase in Mexican production but also because of the local drought conditions in California. For comparison purposes, in 2015, national production accounted for 25 percent of all avocados sold in the United States, and in 2012 this figure was even higher, at 32 percent. National production for 2017 was comprised of 87 percent of Hass varieties from Southern California and 13 percent from Florida producers of other green-skinned varieties.
California’s highest production months are May through July, while Florida generally reaches its highest production numbers from July through September. California’s production has declined due to drought in recent years, with 2014, i.e. 36 percent, 2015, i.e. 9 percent, and 2017, i.e. 37 percent.
Golden State production requires 74.1 gallons of water to produce 1 pound of fruit. In comparison, the global average water use per pound of avocado is markedly different at 28 gallons, although it varies by country: for example, Mexico is 31.9 gallons and Chile 96.8 gallons.
Where Does The United States Get Most Of Its Avocados?
This is one of the asked and searched questions “Where does the united states get most of its avocados?” on the internet and market. Let’s discuss about.
Central and South American countries dominate global avocado production, with Indonesia and the United States also notable producers. World avocado production grew at an average rate of almost seven percent annually between 2008 and 2013.
This compares with four percent annually between 2004 and 2007. Mexico is the world’s leading avocado producer. In 2012, it produced 1,300 metric tons (MT), equivalent to 30 percent of world production.
This is almost four times that of Indonesia, the second-largest producer. Production in Chile which is the second-largest producer in 2009, has decreased by 45 percent in the past 3 years as a result of bad weather and drought.
Africa accounted for 16 percent of world production in 2012, a slight increase of 15 percent in 2008. Other major producers include Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and Peru. Avocado production in the United States is centered in California and Florida, and to a limited degree in Hawaii.
Ninety percent of US avocado production originates in California, most of which is planted with the Hass variety. California avocados are produced and marketed throughout the year, although the fastest-growing season is from April to September.
Florida generally grows Booth, Lula, and Taylor varieties, as the Hass variety does not adapt well in Florida’s colder winter. These varieties have smoother skins and are not transported as well as the Hass variety. Florida avocados are produced from June to March.
In 2012, the United States produced 245,000 MT of avocado, approximately seven percent of world production. USA production of Avocado Per year has been very variable.
This reflects alternate years of high and low load, which is a characteristic of avocado production. Over the past decade, production averaged 212,000 MT, with a 2005 high of 283,000 MT and a low of 105,000 MT in 2010.
The value of US avocado production measured $ 392 million in 2017. The United States produced 146,310 tons. The total number of U.S. acres in production stabilized at 56,580 (NASS, 2018).
Certain varieties, like Hass, tend to give good results only in alternate years. After a season with poor performance, due to factors such as the cold (which the avocado does not tolerate well), the trees tend to produce abundantly the next season.
This heavy crop depletes stored carbohydrates, resulting in reduced yield the following season, and therefore the alternative support pattern is established.
California Hass avocados come from a good place.
Southern California Hass Avocado Groves produce delicious, natural avocados. The soil is ideal; There is adequate drainage, abundant sunshine and cool ocean breezes throughout the year. These exceptional conditions provide the farmers with an abundance of creamy, velvety and delicious avocados. There are hundreds of types of avocados, but seven varieties of avocado are grown commercially in California. The Hass variety accounts for about 95 percent of the total harvest each year, which runs from spring to fall.
The first plantations in California
The first avocado plantations in California probably occurred around 1850. It was reported in the California State Agricultural Society Report of 1856 that Dr. Thomas White cultivated an avocado tree in San Gabriel (Butterfield 1963). This tree produced no known progeny, but other people interested in exotic fruits planted other seedling trees throughout Southern California. Three avocado seedling trees are recorded to have been brought from Mexico and planted in Santa Barbara by Judge R. B. Ord in 1871. These trees are generally considered the foundation of the avocado industry in California. (Ryerson 1923).
In 1892, Juan Murrieta from Los Angeles became interested in avocados and brought a large quantity of thick-skinned fruit from Atlixco, Mexico. From there, he distributed seeds to his friends and planted the others. From this selection came several of the first varieties that seemed interesting in California. Nurseryman Kinton Stevens established 120 seedlings at Montecito, in Santa Barbara County, in 1895, establishing the first avocado orchard. The orchard initially prospered but died after several years of drought.
He also planted a Mexican seedling in 1895 that Francisco Franceschi, an importer of subtropical fruits, gave to George A. White for his ranch in Santa Barbara. In 1940 it was reported that the tree had been supporting since 1900, and, in October 1937, it had grown 56 feet tall and spread over a 50 foot lot. The trunk diameter was 37 inches, four feet above the ground.
The first “commercial” flowering tree of the avocado orchard was planted in 1908 by William Hertrich for Henry E. Huntington on his estate in San Marino, Los Angeles County. During this time, the chef from the Athletic Club of Los Angeles saved avocado seeds imported from Atlixco in Puebla, Mexico. The seeds were delivered to Hettich, grown in pots, and eventually, four hundred seedling trees were planted and then sprouted to available varieties.
The orchard suffered severe damage from the catastrophic “1913 Freeze”, but it was rebuilt; some trees still exist on the Huntington Library grounds. Other trees planted in various places in Los Angeles and had survived the freeze bore good fruit and showed that the avocado adapted to the region.
California Avocado Association Formation
California’s first avocado growers association began with a meeting on May 15, 1915, at the Alexandria Hotel in Los Angeles. Its most important result was the formation of a California Ahuacate Association with the purpose of “… improving the culture, production, and marketing of Ahuacate.” The word “ahuacate” was used because it was the word in everyday use for this fruit in Mexico.
After a lively debate, the avocado replaced Ahuacate as the Association’s official name and the fruit (Shepherd 1991). The word “avocado” was a new word that was not in dictionaries at the time, and the Association eventually informed dictionary editors of the correct spelling and definition and that the plural form would be “avocados,” not “avocados”.
On October 23, 1915, the first semi-annual producer meeting was held with Edwin G. Hart as the first president and chair of the Board of Directors. At the end of the year, there were 74 members made up of producers, researchers and others interested in avocado. The Association was renamed the California Avocado Society in 1941.
This organization has been the primary driving force for variety improvement, producer education, and working with the University of California on research to solve cultural problems. The California Avocado Society is famous the world over for its production of valuable and informative yearbooks. The Yearbooks serve as an information library for producers and researchers in California and across the globe. Over the years, the Society has sponsored many producer meetings. Since 1990, the Society has sponsored six meetings a year with agricultural advisers at the United States Cooperative Extension to present timely research and cultural information to producers.
Introduction of the “Hass” variety.
The green-skinned “Fuerte” was a variety preferred by consumers in the early days, but and many of the other selected new types was plagued by short harvest seasons and erratic yields.
A stroke of luck set the black-skinned ‘Hass’ variety in the 1920s at Rudolph Hass’ farm in La Habra, California. In 1926, Hass purchased Guatemalan avocado seedlings (believed to be of the “Lyon” variety) from the Rideout nursery at Whittier and planted them in his new forest. On Rideout’s recommendation, Hass planted three seedlings in each hole with the idea that the strongest would be grafted and the other two removed.
The seedlings had to be grafted in the field to the popular variety ‘Fuerte’, but after three attempts, Hass could not get the Fuerte sprouts to take one of the seedlings. After the last grafting attempt, Hass allowed the seedling tree to grow, but the tree was ignored. Hass thought the fruit was dreadful, with rough purple-black skin. Rudolph finally tasted the fruit, and he liked the creamy meat, the nutty flavor, the lack of fibre and 18% oil content, and the long harvest season. His new selection, which he named himself, was granted US Plant Patent No. 139.
The USA On August 27, 1935. Hass made a deal with Harold H. Brokaw, a nurseryman in Whittier, to cultivate and promote Hass avocado, but when the patent expired in 1952, Rudolph Hass had earned just $ 4,800 with the new variety. Until 2002, the original “Hass” parent tree lived in a suburban setting in La Habra Heights, and then it died from avocado root rot disease; The tree was 76 years old. Harold Brokaw’s nephew, Hank, removed the wood from the dead tree, and now it is kept in storage. The California Avocado Society sometimes uses pieces for boards and other unique items.
Market acceptance of the dark-skinned variety was slow as consumers had learned to recognize “green” as the appropriate color for an avocado. The constant promotion of packers and producers gradually resulted in increased market acceptance so that, by 1957, “Hass” accounted for 15% of the California crop. By 1972, forty years after its introduction, “Hass” outperformed “Strong” in total volume traded from California. By 1990, “Hass” represented 83% of California’s avocado production (compared to just 2% for Fuerte). At the end of the 2010-2011 crop year, “Hass” comprised 94.5% of commercially grown avocados in California.
Avocados are frost-sensitive and are grown mainly along the southern coast. In 2012, San Diego and Ventura counties grew 65% of California avocados. There are also important acreage in Santa Barbara, Riverside and San Luis Obispo counties. California has historically dominated the avocado industry in the United States. California has produced between 75% and 92% of the nation’s avocados over the past decade.
The other great producer is Florida; Hawaii also has a small area. All California avocados are marketed fresh. “Hass”, the main variety is grown in California, can be harvested from spring through fall. Green-skinned winter varieties are also grown but face strong competition from imported Chilean “Hass”.
Avocados have a strong alternate bearing habit, and yields are also greatly affected by drought and freezing events. Therefore, average yields are generally lower than a typical heavy-load year (“on”) and higher than a specific light-bearing year (“off”) and are not a good indicator of the yield potential of a particular groove in a given year. . For example, in the 1970s, when the state average yield ranged from 2,000 to 9,000 lbs/acre, a single “Hass” producer reported a five-year high and low yield of 21,000 and 1,900 lbs/acre, respectively.
However, despite fluctuations, average yields increased steadily from 1925 to the 1950s and have remained relatively stable since the 1960s. The increase during the first half of the century coincides with the industry’s higher-yielding adoption and more reliably with the “Hass” variety.
The avocado is also called Alligator Pear because of its pear shape and green skin. Avocado is a derivative of the Spanish word aguacate, which comes from the Aztec word ahuacatl. Most avocados consumed in the USA are imported. California is the largest producer of cultivated avocados in the US. There are more than 3,000 avocado growers in California growing on approximately 50,000 acres.
A single California avocado tree can produce an average of about 60 pounds or 150 fruits a year. In California, there are seven varieties of commercially grown avocados. But the Hass variety is the most popular, which accounts for approximately 95 percent of the total crop volume.
The Hass avocado variety is native to California. Rudolph Hass first discovered it in the mid-1920s. California avocados grow year-round and are in the high season from spring through summer. The size of the avocado does not indicate the quality of the fruit or the stage of maturity. The seed of an avocado grows with the fruit, so the seed-fruit ratio will always be close to the same.
CALIFORNIA AVOCADO AND NUTRITION
California avocados are heart-healthy fruits that are naturally free of sodium, cholesterol, and trans fat. A third of a medium avocado (50 g) has 80 calories and provides almost 20 vitamins and minerals, making it a nutrient-rich option. California avocados act as a nutrient booster by helping to increase the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamins A, D, K, and E.
AVOCADO IN CALIFORNIA AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Farmers growing avocado in California rely on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to combat pests and diseases. As a result, California avocados are among the lowest of all fruits and vegetables for pesticide use. If pest treatment is necessary, the softest chemicals are selected to have the most negligible impact on the environment and beneficial organisms in the garden.
The trend toward organic production is rising, with the number of California avocado groves becoming certified organic. Every year a new certified organic avocado acreage is produced in California to meet the growing demand for organically grown fruit. Avocado orchards help renew the air supply and keep it fresh by absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Orchard trees reduce the air temperature by evaporating the water in their leaves.
The roots of avocado trees stabilize the soil and help prevent erosion. Avocado orchards can reduce storm runoff and the possibility of flooding. By decreasing runoff and filtering rainwater, orchards can improve water quality.
Avocado orchards serve as a natural fire break for surrounding neighbourhoods and businesses due to their well-irrigated soil and lush green leaves. They can help firefighters slow or stop the spread rate during wildfires.
Many varieties are available as certified organic fruit.
American avocados are grown commercially in California, Florida, and Hawaii. Most California avocados are grown along the Pacific coast between San Luis Obispo and the Mexican border, where the climate is temperate. California represented 90.3 percent of the US production area. At the same time, Florida accounted for 9.3 percent and Hawaii less than 1 percent. USA bearing acreage decreased substantially between 1992 and 1995 from approximately 80,000 acres to just over 65,000 hectares. Between 1995 and 2001, the area remained stable at around 65,000 ha. However, it has increased since 2001 and reached 68,670 in the 2004-2005 marketing year.
The value of avocado production has increased since the early 1990s, from $ 118.1 million in 1992 to almost $ 400 million in 2003. However, in 2004 the production value fell by $ 100 million, from $ 394.4 million to $ 294.4 million. This fall is consistent with a decrease in California production in 2004 in combination with lower prices. US avocado production in 2004 amounted to 203,400 tons, a decrease of approximately 30,000 tons from the previous year. US production peaked in 1992 at 291,600 tons and has been variable throughout the 1990s.
The biggest cultivar
Hass (Flower type: A); Hass originated as a variety of incidental seedlings in La Habra Heights, California. The cultivar was selected by Rudolph Hass in the 1920s and patented in 1935. Hass is recognized as the best overall quality avocado available; it has the longest harvest season (January – August in San Diego County, until June – October in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties). It is currently the recommended cultivar for new plantations. Hass is grown in most southern California coastal counties and the western tip of Riverside County, especially in places that have mild temperatures in summer and little frost (if any) in winter.
Hass is also recognized as having several deficiencies, including poor fruit production in some places, sensitivity to saline irrigation water, intolerance to the cold below 30 ° F and susceptibility to Persea mites and the avocado thrips. These problems have fueled interest in new cultivars, and funding for the breeding program has remained a priority in the California avocado industry.
Other Hass qualities include relatively high yield in some areas to light yields in others, somewhat alternate yield, tiny seeds, and a nutty flavor. The industry has tried to make Hass a year-round cultivar, but early-season Hass fruits are not as tasty as mid-season fruits, and late-season fruits often quickly go rancid upon softening. From Chile’s strong entry into the winter market, California, the industry is now focusing on harvesting most of the crop between February and August, with some subsequent harvests from northern counties in September and October.
During the 20th century, many selected random seedling cultivars were found in groves and dooryards in California. Many were named and registered with the California Avocado Society, but only a few had the qualities that made them a lasting success in the market. Fuerte was a leading cultivar in the first half of the century but is slowly fading due to Hass’s overwhelming popularity.
Some of the newer cultivars were selected by researchers at U. C. Riverside in an ongoing search for a more productive cultivar than Hass, which include Gwen, Lamb Hass, GEM, and SirPrize.
- Fuerte (Flower type: B). Carl Schmidt found Fuerte as a seedling in Atlixco, Mexico, in 1911. It survived a freeze in Los Angeles in 1913 and eventually became the cultivar of choice in California before Hass’ appearance. The fruit is green when ripe, pear-shaped with a flat area in the lower corner, 8 to 14 ounces in size and very high quality. The Fuerte is still considered by many in the avocado industry as the best tasting avocado. The Fuerte tree is large and extended. The leaves have a strong anise smell when crushed, and there are red spots on the wood of the new shoots. The tree is intermediate in cold hardiness at about 27 ° F. The tree performs best away from coastal influence, but not in hot interior areas.
- Zutano (Flower type: B); This cultivar is believed to have originated as a seedling tree at the Truitt Ranch on Alvarado Street in Fallbrook, California. Zutano is a vigorous upright tree that produces a lot. The fruit is green on maturation, thin skin, bright green skin, pear-shaped, and ranges from 8 to 14 ounces in size. The fruit quality is relatively poor; consumers comment that the taste is poor and “watery”. This is the result of a low accumulation of oil (or dry matter) in the meat. Zutons harvested at the end of their season taste more palatable, but surface plugging, endpoints, and internal decay reduce or eliminate marketability. Most of the zutanos have been removed or worked for a better cultivar. The remaining Zutano fruit is often used as “wet” seeds for the clonal propagation of avocados.
- Bacon. (Flower type: B); Bacon originated as a seedling tree at James E. Bacon’s ranch in Buena Park, California, in 1928. Mr Bacon analyzed large numbers of seedlings for resistance to cold and settled on one that produced fruit at low temperatures. The early season (November-January) and is now probably the most cold-hardy of the commercial varieties. In the late 1920s, the Bacon variety was introduced to the avocado industry.
- Reed (Flower type: A); Reed was a seedling at the James S. Reed Ranch in Carlsbad, California, in 1948. Reed is believed to be a cross between Anaheim and Nabal, two varieties of the Guatemalan type. Fris is almost round and relatively large, averaging 8 to 12 ounces near the coast and 12 to 18 ounces inland. The skin is green and “shell-shaped”. The cane is harvested from July to September but will last on trees in some forests until mid-November. The fruit has a rich nutty flavor, and the cutting surface does not darken.
- Pinkerton (flower type: A); Pinkerton originated as a seedling around 1959 at John Pinkerton Ranch in Saticoy, Ventura County, California. The cultivar is believed to be a hybrid of Hass x Rincon. The cultivar was patented in 1975.
In California, avocados are primarily limited to the coastal and inland valley regions of Southeast California. 59% of the state’s plantations are located in the north San Diego County and Southwest Riverside County. The other major producing area in the state consists of the coastal and inland county of Ventura and coastal Santa Barbara County. This region represents 33 percent of the state’s plantations. Approximately 1,000 ha of avocados are grown in the San Joaquin Valley in the center of California. In this region, avocado plantations are restricted to the Sierra mountain foothills.
The Californian industry is based on the Guatemalan and Mexican breeds of avocados. The main cultivar, Hass, represents 66 percent of the state’s current plantations. This variety is likely to remain the dominant variety for the foreseeable future. Classified as a spring-summer variety, Hass fruit is available year-round except October-November. Fuerte was the leading commercial variety before the great expansion of the avocado surface in the mid to late 1970s. Since 1972, however, Hass’ plantations have increased by 399 percent. Sixty-six percent of Hass’ plantations are under 12 years old, while 28 percent of Fuerte’s plantations are under 12 years old.
Fuerte, Zutano and Bacon are the other main varieties grown in California and are grouped as ‘green skin’ varieties. Sixty-five percent of the Zutano and Bacon plantations are under 12 years old. The Zutano avocado is predominantly grown in the coldest areas of the San Joaquin Valley region and parts of Riverside County. Plantations of these ‘Green skin’ varieties are declining due to a disparity in producer yields between these. Hass, the top-priced California avocado industry, has been managed by a state marketing order since 1962. In 1979, the California Avocado Commission oversaw this marketing order. Through producer evaluations, this Commission manages commercial promotion and advertising programs. Of the total Californian harvest, approximately 80 percent is marketed west of the Mississippi, with the western United States that consume the highest proportion. Although California only exports approximately 4 percent of its production represents 95.9 percent of total avocado exports from the United States. Japan is the main foreign market.
Marketing of Avocados
Avocados have been marketed as a healthy dietary option and as a good source of beneficial monounsaturated oil. A whole medium avocado contains approximately 15 percent of the FDA’s recommended daily allowance for saturated fat.
Also, avocados have 60 percent more potassium than bananas. They are also rich in B vitamins, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, and folic acid. Avocados are also a benefit to a diabetic diet.
With the rise of diabetes in the United States, avocados may offer a nutritious option for those on a diabetic diet. The United States is a negligible exporter of avocado, so practically all of the 245,000 MT of national production is consumed in the country.
Combining domestic production with imports of 571,827 MT in 2012, total domestic consumption equals 816,827 MT, equivalent to 19 percent of global consumption.
An import ban on avocado had been in place since 1914 to protect against agricultural pests and diseases (especially avocado seed weevils). These restrictions began to be eased in 1997 and in 2007 and all restrictions had been removed.
Since then, the United States has become the world’s largest avocado importer. US imports now represent about 12 percent of total world production. In 2013, USA imported 571,827 MT, valued at $ 1.08 billion. More than 98 percent of US avocado imports from only three countries: Mexico, Chile, and Peru.
Demand of Avocados
U.S. avocado consumption has followed a variable but generally increasing trend since 1970, increasing significantly from 2.23 pounds per capita in 2000 to a record of 7.1 pounds per capita in 2016 (Statista, 2018).
Per capita, avocado consumption in the United States has grown rapidly over the past two decades after many years of annual variability and slow growth as per capita consumption increased from £ 1.1 in 1994 to £ 8.0 in 2018.
There has been no clear trend in real prices to indicate that the supply of fresh avocados is relatively elastic over time, a result only possible because demand has expanded to keep pace with the rapid growth of supplies in the US market.
During the 15-year period from January 2, 2003, to December 31, 2017, HAB collected evaluations totaling more than $ 495.7 million.
Total marketing and promotional expenses for the 15 years by the organization were: CAC, $ 143.1 million; Chile, $ 40.5 million; Mexico, $ 238.3 million; Peru, $ 11.5 million; and HAB, $ 63.0 million. These promotional expenses were a very important factor related to the increase in the American demand for avocados.
Econometric studies of avocado growers’ returns on their advertising and promotional expenses in the US market. They have shown positive cost/benefit relationships in the range between 2.5 and 4.0.
Each of these studies has concluded that the returns on advertising/promotion costs are attractive and that increased advertising/promotion costs would have produced additional profits
Avocados are produced in the United States year-round, but the peak growing season is April through September. Imports in these months are correspondingly low.
However, since domestic production does not meet domestic demand, imports still average 382 MT per month, almost exclusively from Mexico and Peru. In comparison, from October to March, imports average 2,247 MT, and it is during this period that Chile supplies the market.
Mexico, the world’s largest avocado producer, has dramatically increased its avocado exports to the U.S. market. Imports of Mexican avocados increased from 300,607 MT in 2009 to 509,771 MT in 2013.
The United States is the main export market for Mexico, with 78 percent of total exports. Mexico’s share of the US market increased from 70 percent in 2009 to 89 percent in 2013.
The vast majority of Mexican avocado exports are managed directly by packers, who have significant US investment in operations and marketing.
Mexico supplied the majority of imported avocados to the United States in 2017. In 2017, the United States imported $ 2.6 billion in fresh avocados and exported approximately $ 28,500 in fresh avocados (ERS 2018) in the year 2017.
To all 50 states in USA commercial shipments of avocados from approved orchards in Mexico can now be distributed. As border restrictions were relaxed, provisions were made to reduce Mexican production, in an attempt to avoid saturation of the US market. Rapid growth in demand soon led to a dramatic increase in imports.
Mexico’s position in supplying the US market reflects its global production dominance, its year-round production schedule, and its proximity to US markets. USA Peru has become a new provider for the US market after being granted market access in 2010.
Peru exported 21,617 MT of avocados to the USA in 2013, worth $ 44 million dollars. Peruvian avocado production peaks in the summer at the same time as California production and Peru has been able to position itself as a supplier when California production does not meet demand.
The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States and Chile signed in 2003 gives Chile a tax-free quota that increases from 49,000 MT in 2004 by 5 percent per year for 12 years until 2016, after which access it will be completely tax-free. Despite this increased access, Chile’s role in the US avocado market has decreased.
US imports have fallen 80 percent since 2009, from 116,709 MT to 23,438 MT in 2013. Chile now represents just 4 percent of the US market. This reflects a drop in national production as a result of bad weather and drought.
California Dominated the US Avocado Market USA Until the 1980s, and fresh imports generally represent less than 1% of total consumption. This began to change in the early 1990s when Chile and the Dominican Republic increased avocado shipments to the US.
And then CAC’s efforts to block Mexican avocado imports failed in 1997. Avocado imports began to increase substantially when fresh avocados from Mexico were allowed into the USA market, with a four-phase opening of the US market that spanned from 1997 to 2007.
Initial imports went to 19 Northeast and Midwest states and Washington DC during the winter months. Allowing avocados to enter markets that tend to be underserved by California, combined with the national public relations program for health and wellness.
The nutritional benefits of consuming avocados resulted in a very effective ten-year market development program.
In response to the problem of free importation into a national research and promotion programs, the CAC directed the efforts of industry to secure the passage of the Hass Avocado Promotion, as the Hass Avocado Board (HAB) was established by research and information act of 2000.
On January 2, 2003, HAB began collecting an assessment of $ 2.5 cents per pound on all imported and domestically produced Hass avocados sold in the US market.
The evaluation is compiled by the first handlers for California production, and by the United States Customs Service for imports, and sent to HAB.
In US promotional programs, HAB compensates 85% of national evaluations to CAC and Importers Associations for use. USA Importers associations are currently in operation for avocados from Mexico, Chile, and Peru. HAB uses the remaining funds for its operations, nutrition and health research, advocacy, and information technology programs.
In advanced commercial processing plants, once avocados are transported from the field to the factory, they are transported by a conveyor belt where they are sorted and graded. There are three grades of avocado.
- The US. No. 1 graded avocado comprises of avocados of various characteristics that are trimmed and free from decay, anthracnose and freezing injury, and free of damage caused by bruises, cuts or other breaks in the skin, well-formed, clean, ripe but not so overripe, well colored, pulled stems, rusting or similar discolouration, scars or scabs, sunburn, sunscald or spray burns, Cercospora spots, other diseases, insects or other means. Since these fruits are visibly attractive, usually shipped to grocery stores and displayed on the shelves.
- “US. No. 2 graded avocado comprises of avocados of similar varietal characteristics that are ripe but not overripe, fairly well-formed, clean, fairly well-colored, trimmed, and free of breakdown and freeze injury and free of serious damage caused by anthracnose, bruising, cuts or other breaks in the skin, plucked stems, rusting or similar discolouration, scars or scabs, sunburn, sunscald or spray burns, Cercospora spots, other diseases, insects or other means. These fruits are not as pleasing in appearance as the US No. 1 fruit, but they still taste the same – they are typically shipped to food service establishments and other retail ingredients for food products, such as guacamole so they mature quickly before being shipped to their final destination. The pressurized air ripening rooms are specifically designed to ripen avocados at a faster rate. The ambient temperature is raised and about 100 parts per million ethylene are pumped into the room. Ethylene is a naturally maturing hormone that is artificially used in avocado processing facilities to speed up the process. Avocados in the ripening chamber ripen in three days instead of seven or eight days. When the process is complete, the room circulates with cold air to shock the fruit and prevent further ripening. After this step, the fruit is checked to make sure they are at the desired maturity. They leave the ripening room on a conveyor belt and pass under a machine that shoots a blast of ultrasound waves through each avocado. The machine tells the computer about how ripe is each avocado. Avocados that are above or below ripening soar off the line. Each sensor can process up to six avocados per second at full speed. Avocados that are ready for shipment are packaged by hand and shipped to their destination.
- The US. No. 3 graded avocado comprises avocados of similar varietal characteristics that are ripe but not overripe, that are not very deformed, and that are free from decay and free from serious damage caused by anthracnose and free from damage caused by frostbite injury, bruising, cuts or another breakage of the skin, pulled stems, discolouration, scars or scabs, sunburn, sunscald or spray burn, another spot, other diseases, insects, dirt or other means. Sometimes the damage does not allow these fruits to ripen properly, so they are often used as animal feed.
During peak production, processing facilities can produce around 500,000 pounds of avocado per day. Once avocados are classified, US No. 1 Avocado. They are shipped to grocery stores and some restaurants as they slowly mature on their journey.
Florida avocados ripen best at temperatures from 60 ° to 75 ° F (16 ° to 24 ° C). At higher temperatures, the fruit ripens unevenly and develops unpleasant flavors.
The lowest safe storage temperatures before the fruit ripens are 55 ° F (13 ° C) for the West Indies and 40 ° F (4 ° C) for most other Florida varieties. Cold injury is characterized by a blackening or darkening of the skin and / or a grayish-brown discoloration of the flesh. After the fruit ripens, they can be stored in the refrigerator.
Ripe fruit can be eaten and used in salad dressing, as a flavoring for ice cream, as a filling for sandwiches, and in quick desserts. In Brazil, Vietnam, and Taiwan, avocados are frequently used for smoothies and occasionally added to ice cream.
In the Philippines, Jamaica, and Indonesia, a dessert drink is made with sugar, milk, and mashed avocado. Avocados are served mixed with white rice in central America. In Chile, they are often used in hamburgers, hot dogs, and celery salads.
Other uses include pressing the fruit for avocado oil production and using the flesh to mix and apply adobe. Various parts of the avocado have medicinal benefits.
When boiled, the leaves are believed to be a remedy for diarrhea. The pulp is used to speed up pus formation in wounds. The seeds can be broken and used as fillers for toothache.
So, this is the answer we have tried to give you about your question “Where does the United States get most of its avocados?”