What time of year do avocado trees bear fruit? :- The avocado tree is evergreen, spacious, growing to a height of 10-20 meters. Primarily native to Central America, it was already known and consumed by the Aztec Indians.
It was a hidden fruit of Central and South America until the 16th century when Spanish conquerors and later English travelers reported this fruit in turn. It spread around the world in the late 18th century, that is, in the tropical, subtropical, Mediterranean regions, where these fruits are also grown.
The main sources of avocados arriving in Europe are the USA, Mexico, the Caribbean, Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa.
The fruit itself resembles a pear, or rounded, alligator circle. The skin is green, reddish-brown, or black, which may have a glossy, smooth, wrinkled, or rough surface.
The flesh of the fruit is light green, white, or yellowish in color, with a texture similar to butter, odorless, and slightly nutty in taste. When sufficiently ripe, it separates easily from both the skin and the seed, which can be up to 5-7 cm in size.
80% of the caloric value of the fruit is easily digestible fat, mostly monounsaturated fatty acids. It affects cholesterol levels: it lowers LDL (bad) and increases HDL (good) cholesterol.
Also, it is rich in various vitamins (A, B, C, D, E) as well as minerals, and its potassium content is exceptionally high. The distribution of calcium and magnesium is also ideal. Due to its significant vitamin E content, it increases the body’s resistance to infections. Its high copper content contributes to the formation of red blood cells.
Avocado is also recommended for malnutrition and overweight. It also contains a plant compound (beta-sitosterol) that has a particularly beneficial effect on the prostate.
Basically, avocado has a cooling effect (since it is a citrus fruit), it is very good for the liver, lubricates the lungs and intestines. An excellent source of lecithin that nourishes the brain.
The avocado tree belongs to the laurel family, Mexico, South, and Central America are considered its homeland. Currently, such fruit is cultivated by such countries as the USA, Chile, Colombia, Brazil, Spain, Venezuela, China, Australia, Kenya, Ecuador.
It is in these countries that a warm climate reigns, increased humidity, and a large amount of sunlight, which are so necessary for the growth of this tree.
What does an avocado tree look like?
The tree has ovoid leaves with pointed tips about 10-20 cm long and 2-12 cm wide in dark green. The flowers of the plant are unsightly, yellow-green in color, collected in small inflorescences in the form of umbrellas.
Avocado fruit is a drupe of green color, with a dense dark green peel. Its flesh is also green in color, has a slightly pronounced sweetish taste and a creamy oily consistency.
The size of avocado fruits varies from 5 to 15 cm, depending on the degree of maturity and variety.
In nature, an adult avocado tree, which belongs to the laurel family, grows up to 20 m. It has a wide crown, a trunk up to 60 cm in diameter, sharp leathery leaves with a shiny dark green upper surface, and a whitish lower surface. Sometimes a tree drops foliage but then grows it again.
It is found in tropical and subtropical regions of India, America, Africa. The avocado fruit is a large single-seeded berry of a dark green color, resembling a pear in shape.
An adult avocado tree whose flowering does not look very attractive can be grown at home. Its nondescript flowers have a greenish tint. They bloom twice a season.
Initially, their stamens are pollinated with pollen from other trees, and anthers mature in about a day and insects transfer their pollen to other plants. Experienced gardeners recommend planting nearby several avocado trees, whose flowering time intersects.
Characteristics of the avocado tree
Various research that has been conducted regarding avocado and its tree proved that the tree is extremely beneficial as it purifies the air. The features of the tree, flower, and fruits are as follows:
- In the wild, the tree reaches 20 m in height; in indoor conditions, the plant does not exceed 3 m.
- Even with the right growing conditions, getting fruit is almost impossible. Fruiting at home is extremely rare. But if the avocado blooms, it will only happen 5 years after planting.
- The leaves of the tree have a deep green hue. All of them are lanceolate. Avocado leaves are leathery, shiny, 10-35 cm long, dark green with light veins, oval with a pointed end. When creasing, they often emit a pronounced anise odor; they have no smell in the West Indies and most Guatemalan varieties.
- The life span of each individual leaf is 2-3 years, they crumble gradually, regardless of the season, accumulating in large quantities under the crowns. Because of the presence of the high concentration of oil contained in special glands, they rot very slowly.
- The flowers are small, light green. All of them are collected in a false umbrella. Avocado flowers are small, 5-10 mm in diameter, nondescript, greenish-yellow, collected 200-300 pcs. Panicle inflorescences formed at the tops of shoots of the previous year. The flowering process is very long, lasts up to 6 months.
- The first buds appear in October, and mass flowering usually occurs in the second half of May. Avocado is a monoecious plant; two types of male and female flowers are formed on it. In the first type, female flowers are ready for pollination only in the morning, and male flowers can give mature pollen only in the evening. While in the other, on the contrary, pollen ripens in the morning and crumbles earlier than female flowers are ready to receive it in the evening.
- Such a complex structure prevents self-pollination, for the formation of the crop requires cross-pollination of flowers of the first and second type. Therefore, despite a large number of buds in the inflorescence, ovaries are formed only in 1-3 of them.
- The fruit of the plant is an oval, pear-shaped or round berry with a stiff green or chestnut skin, which, after ripening, acquires a black color. Its size and weight vary greatly depending on the species or variety, it can be from 12 to 25 cm long, and weigh from 100 g to 1.8 kg.
- As for the taste of the fruits, they are much inferior to imported ones. But despite this, they can be eaten. The mature pulp of an avocado is oily, green or yellow-green, with a light nutty flavor, contains a large amount of fat. In its center, there is a large, 5-6 cm long, seed in the form of a bone, covered with a thin shell. Fruits do not ripen on a tree at the same time, depending on the variety, from mid-August to December.
- In nature, there is avocado with fruits of such shades: yellowish green; dark green; violet-reddish; saturated purple.
- The root of the avocado is branched, large, often protrudes above the surface of the soil where t has been planted. The characteristic features of the root system include the absence of root hairs, therefore, the role of absorption of nutrients and moisture is played by active roots up to 1 mm in diameter.
- Mycorrhiza is present on them, symbiosis with mycelium of the fungus facilitates and rapidity the process of absorption and assimilation of the necessary substances. This structure of the roots necessitates regular cultivation and watering when growing crops.
Some facts about the avocado tree and avocado fruit
- Why do sliced avocados go dark? If you cut an avocado, you break the cell walls, causing oxidation. The process of oxidation can be slowed down by an acidic liquid (such as lemon or lime juice).
- Avocados are an excellent source of potassium. They can contain up to 60% more potassium than bananas.
- European sailors used avocado to replace butter in ancient times.
- The flesh of avocado contains more fiber than other fruits.
- In France, the avocado is called avocat, while in English and Italian it is called avocado. It is said that the avocados came from Haiti to France and got the name la bonne poire (the good pear). It wasn’t long before the prices shot up, making it a luxurious fruit that only wealthy people like a lawyer could afford. This is how it got its name The pear of the lawyer, which led to the name Avocado known today.
- According to a study by the Journal of the American Heart Association, eating an avocado every day is a good way to keep cholesterol levels under control. For a healthy heart, it is advised to replace saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids (found in avocados).
- Also, the avocado is not only suitable for the palate but is increasingly used in cosmetics. Avocado oil is excellent for anti-aging methods and keeps skin and hair healthy.
Avocados and the high water consumption
Unfortunately, there are not only good things to say about the popular fruit. Avocados are tasty and healthy no question. But the high water consumption makes the avocado a polluter.
For comparison: a farmer needs about 180 liters of water to produce one kilo of tomatoes. For a kilo of avocados, on the other hand, 1000 liters of water is needed. This corresponds to approx. 100 – 300 liters of water for a single avocado – depending on the region.
As the avocado is becoming increasingly popular, many farmers no longer rely on traditional fruits, but rather on avocados. The avocados are extremely thirsty and some farmers can only meet the large water requirement by illegally tapping rivers.
This poses a problem, especially in areas where water is scarce anyway. The avocado plantations can quickly lead to dangerous water shortages.
What time of year do avocado trees bear fruit?
Avocado trees and cultivating the trees have now become one of the most income-generating professions of many farmers around the world. Avocado cultivation is very easy to do because it does not require treatment with expensive costs.
As long as the avocado plant growth requirements are met and care is taken regularly, avocado plants will flourish and bear fruit quickly. The time and the age of bearing fruit by the avocado trees fairly depend on the type or the variety of the tree that you have planted.
Therefore, here the type of the avocado tree and its time of bearing fruit have been below:
Alligator avocado is famous for its unique fruit shape, which is oval-shaped, with a slightly enlarged bottom and a smaller tip like a pear. For its size is also quite large, can reach a weight of up to 1.2 kg/fruit.
This type of avocado has thick flesh, fluffier with a soft texture without fiber. For taste, this alligator avocado has a sweet taste and does not have the slightest bitterness.
Also, the alligator avocado has a distinctive aroma. It got its name due to the skin that resembles the skin of the alligator. Avocado alligator plants can be planted in low-lying areas with an ideal height of about 300 meters above sea level.
For harvesting can usually be done when the plants are 3-5 years old after planting. The market demand for this type of avocado is also always increasing every year.
This makes the cultivation of avocado alligators into a good business opportunity. Because in addition to its unique shape, alligator avocados are included in plants that can easily bear fruit.
This type of avocado is named as kendil avocado because this type of avocado has a fairly large size and has a shape like a kendil. The weight of one fruit can reach up to 1-2 kg/fruit.
Kendil avocados have thick flesh, small seeds with a delicious taste, soft, sweet and can be eaten directly. Kendil avocado plants can grow maximally if planted in high altitude areas with an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level.
The suitable soil is loose, fertile, not easily flooded, and contains many nutrients. In addition to the large fruit, avocado leaves of this type are also not preferred by caterpillars.
Harvesting of kendil avocados can be done when the plant is 3-4 years old since planting. The selling price of this kendil avocado is also relatively high so it is suitable for cultivation for future investments.
Buttery avocado is one of the superior avocado fruit types that is famous for having a fairly thick meaty odor, dense and non-watery springy texture. The most interesting part of this type of avocado is the beautiful yellow flesh and clean as butter.
Avocado butter shape tends to be round with the base and the tip rather rounded as well and has a length of about 13-17 cm and a diameter of 10-14 cm. The weight of the fruit around 0.6 kg/fruit. This type of avocado has a protein content of 1.37%, and fat content of 7.58%.
Harvesting of avocado butter can be done when the plant is around 4-5 years after planting with a relatively high level of fruit productivity, for one avocado tree butter can produce about 350-450 fruits/year. Another feature of this type of avocado is its ability to bear fruit throughout the year.
Hass avocado is famous for its unique fruit shape. The skin is blackish brown when ripe, the texture of the skin is rough and chilled. The shape of the fruit is round with yellow flesh. Avocado Hass can grow in the lowlands and highlands and is very suitable for planting in Asia.
The taste of the flesh is also very delicious and fluffier. Not surprisingly, avocado has become a very popular fruit for consumption by all people from different parts of the world.
This type of avocado is not easy to rot, so it is suitable to be stored for a long time. Avocado Hass has a variety of nutritional content. Also, existing unsaturated fats are very beneficial for reducing cholesterol. Avocado Hass is a type of avocado that has the most delicious taste compared to other avocado types.
As the name implies, this type of avocado has features that are not possessed by other avocado types, namely its flesh is thick and has no seeds at all. Almost all the fruit is full of super thick meat. Seedless avocados have a taste that is not inferior to other types of avocados.
The combination of thick flesh with delicious flavors can certainly provide satisfaction for avocado lovers. This type of avocado plants can flourish in the lowlands and highlands, with an ideal height of about 200-1000 meters above sea level.
A good temperature for planting avocados without seeds is around 20-28 ° C cool climates. Physically, avocado plants without seeds have the same characteristics as other types of avocados.
The stem is brown, oval leaves are green at the top, and brownish-yellow at the bottom. The shape of the fruit is also the same as other types of avocados, only this type of avocado has thicker flesh and has no seeds.
Wina Avocado is one type of superior local avocado which is famous for its large-sized fruit and weighs about 1.3 kg – 1.8 kg/fruit, heavier than ordinary avocado types.
This type of fruit has thick, dense, and yellow flesh. Also, the avocado wina has tasty, sweet, and delicious flavors. Elongated shaped leaves with a size of about 12-25 cm with small yellowish-green flowers. Avocado wina plants can flourish if planted in the highlands, with an ideal height of about 1000 meters above sea level.
For harvesting can usually be done when the plants are aged 4-5 years after planting. The advantage of this type of avocado is its ability to bear fruit throughout the year without knowing the season.
Not only that, but the avocado wina plant is also known to have a high level of fruit productivity, as well as the fruit that can last up to 15 days after being picked.
As the name implies, avocado Miki has a small-sized fruit, the weight of one fruit on average only ranges between 400-600 grams. This type of avocado has yellow flesh, solid texture, and fluffier that is not inferior to other types of avocados.
The avocado Miki is one of the superior avocado species that can grow and bear fruit well in low-lying areas. This type of avocado is included in the type of fruit plants that can easily bear fruit and can produce fruit throughout the year.
Harvesting can usually be done after the plant is around 3-4 years old since planting. Also, the avocado Miki is resistant to pests such as caterpillars because it has a very thick fruit skin, so it is very difficult to be penetrated by intruders.
Avocado Pluwang / Green Star:
Pluwang Avocado has a size that is classified as jumbo. The weight of the fruit can reach 600-800 grams/fruit, some even can reach a weight of 2 kg/fruit.
This type of avocado has meat that is dense, soft-textured with citasara that is sweeter and tastier than other avocado types. Pluwang avocado plant is a type of avocado that is famous for having a short body posture so it is very easy in the process of harvesting.
This type of avocado has many names, such as Hawaii avocado jumbo and avocado prince. This is because the avocado pluwang itself has not been certified. In addition to its jumbo size, pluwang avocados are also included in the types of plants that can easily bear fruit.
This type of avocado tree will usually start bearing fruit when it is 2-3 years after planting. Another advantage is that the avocado pluwang is not preferred by pests such as caterpillars and has a long-lasting fruit.
In general, avocado trees bear fruit at the age of 3 years from vegetative propagation seeds (grafting, pasting). In the highlands, the trees can bear fruit more quickly around the age of 2 years, and when planted in lowland, they can bear fruit at an average age of 4 years.
The age when the trees bear the fruit also depends on the way you care for the avocado tree.
To wait for this avocado plant you have to be extra patient because if you plant using the method through seeds, the avocado plant starts to bear fruit after the age of 10 to 15 years.
But for those of you who plant in a vegetative way in the form of grafts, the trees can bear the fruit from the age of 5 to 8 years. Avocado fruit can be harvested after 6 to 7 months after the fruit blooms.
How to Take Care of Avocado Trees for Fast and Ripe Fruit?
In the market the price of avocados that are large and thick flesh is relatively expensive, that’s why many people take the initiative to plant their avocado trees.
Unfortunately waiting for delicious avocado meat must be delayed due to ignorance of how to care for an avocado tree to bear fruit quickly, even though to produce a dense avocado tree does not require too complicated techniques.
In addition to the selection of avocado tree seedlings that are proven to be healthy and come from superior species, basic care and patient are needed. The other care has to be provided to the avocado plant so that they can bear the fruit as fast as possible. Such as:
Selection of an Avocado Varieties
Each variety or type of avocado has different genes. In the case of fruiting speed too. Some types that you can choose because it has been proven to bear fruit faster are the types of Miki Avocado, Avocado Aligator, Avocado Pluwang, or Avocado Hass.
Seed Propagation Methods
Besides the type, the avocado seed propagation technique that you plant also influences. Vegetative propagation such as grafting, top grafting, and so on you can use.
Shape or Plant Vigor
If you plant seeds from small, then during the growth phase you should pay attention to them. Make a tree with a sturdy trunk and many branches.
Timely fertilization and the right dosage is the key to optimal stem growth. With good care, avocado plants usually aged 1.5 years – 2 years already have good vigor and can be fertilized.
Do it in April-May
Avocado plants are seasonal plants. Although several types bear fruit every year or out of season. But ideally, avocado trees bear fruit simultaneously in certain months. Most avocado trees will start flowering in July-August.
Regular watering can help avocado trees absorb nutrients found in the soil for tree growth needs. Water your avocado tree at least once a day in the morning or evening. The time of watering can be increased if the dry season occurs and at the time of the rainy season, you don’t have to water the plant.
Weeds or disturbing plants that live around the avocado tree can carry germs and take nutrients from the soil that should be absorbed completely by the avocado tree. For this reason, you need to weed or clear the land of weeds regularly.
Apply fertilizer according to plant development. The steps to apply good and correct fertilizer are as follows:
- In the initial preparatory phase for planting avocado trees, it is a good idea to mix the growing plant with compost or manure.
- Leave the mixed planting fertilizer for about 1 week so that nutrients in fertilizer are absorbed evenly by the soil.
- After the avocado tree grows, provide follow-up fertilizer in the form of N, K, and KCL fertilizers to stimulate fruit growth on the avocado tree.
Trimming the tip of a tree or tree branches that are not useful is another step that you should do. You should do so that the concentration of food is not spread for the growth of new leaves or buds but fruit formation.
After pruning, do not forget to apply tar or fungicide to the cut ends of the stem so that the fungus does not enter and does not invite disease germs.
Giving hormones also need to be done besides fertilizing. It aims to stimulate the appearance of flowers that will produce fruit on avocado trees.
In contrast to the provision of fertilizer that is spread or mixed with planting media, giving hormones is simply done by spraying parts of the tree starting from the leaves, stems, to the roots of the avocado tree.
Loosening the soil
Land that is often sprayed either directly from rainwater, or routinely from humans can become dense and hard, this will cause difficulty for the air to penetrate the soil even though the air is one of the important elements for the growth of living things.
Be careful when you loose soil so as not to injure the roots and become a pathway for germs.
Destruction of pests and diseases
Pests and diseases make avocado trees fail to grow and result in trees unable to produce fruit. Immediately take action to eliminate pests by spraying pesticides if you find signs of an avocado tree that you have the disease. Some of the pests that often attack avocado trees are:
- Elephant butterfly caterpillar
- Anthracnose disease
- Leaf spot disease
The characteristics of avocado trees that are ready to harvest
If you have taken care of the avocado tree carefully, then your avocado tree will undoubtedly be fruitful and ripe. The characteristics of avocado trees that are ready to harvest are as follows:
- If an avocado tree is planted in a generative way or through seeds, the tree will bear fruit at the age of 10-15 years.
- If an avocado tree is planted by vegetative or graft techniques, the tree will bear fruit at the age of 5-8 years.
- Harvesting will take place 6-7 months after the tree flowering.